What is the IELTS Reading Exam?
The IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Reading Exam is one component of the IELTS test, which assesses the English language proficiency of non-native English speakers. IELTS is commonly used for purposes such as study, work, and migration to English-speaking countries.
The IELTS Reading Exam is designed to evaluate a candidate’s ability to understand and interpret written information. The test consists of three sections, each with a different type of reading passage:
This section is aimed at candidates planning to study at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels.
It includes three long texts taken from books, journals, magazines, and newspapers.
The passages are on academic topics, and the questions may require candidates to identify main ideas, supporting details, opinions, and arguments.
General Training Reading:
This section is intended for candidates seeking to migrate to an English-speaking country or for those planning to undertake work-related training.
It includes three sections with extracts from notices, advertisements, company handbooks, official documents, and other sources.
The questions assess the ability to understand main ideas, details, opinions, and the writer’s purpose.
IELTS Reading Timing:
Candidates have 60 minutes to complete the Reading section.
Each passage is followed by a set of questions, and candidates must answer a variety of question types, including multiple-choice, matching, labeling diagrams or charts, completing sentences, and short-answer questions.
The Reading test is scored on a scale from 0 to 9, with half-point increments.
The overall Reading Band Score is an average of the scores for the three sections.
To prepare for the IELTS Reading Exam, candidates often practice reading a variety of texts, improve their skimming and scanning skills, and familiarize themselves with the different question types. Additionally, understanding the structure of each passage and learning time management techniques are crucial for success in this section of the IELTS test.
Common types of IELTS Reading Questions
In the IELTS Reading Exam, various question types are used to assess different reading skills. Here are some common types of IELTS Reading questions:
Candidates are asked to choose the correct answer from a list of options.
The options may include distractors that are designed to confuse test-takers.
Candidates are presented with statements, and they have to determine whether the information in the passage supports the statement (True), contradicts it (False), or if there is no information on the statement in the passage (Not Given).
Test-takers match information from the passage to a set of statements or questions.
The options may be in the form of paragraphs, headings, or phrases.
Candidates match a list of headings or subheadings with different sections of the text.
This assesses the ability to understand the main ideas of each section.
Test-takers match a set of statements or questions with a list of features in the passage.
This assesses the ability to identify specific details or characteristics.
Candidates complete sentences with information from the passage.
This assesses the ability to understand specific details and context.
Note Completion/Table Completion:
Test-takers fill in gaps in notes or tables based on information from the passage.
Candidates complete a diagram, flowchart, or summary using information from the passage.
Short Answer Questions:
Test-takers provide brief answers to questions based on the information in the passage.
Candidates label or complete diagrams or maps based on information provided in the passage.
Similar to True/False/Not Given, but candidates decide if the information agrees with the statements (Yes), disagrees (No), or if the information is not given in the passage (Not Given).
It’s important for candidates to be familiar with each question type and practice with sample questions to develop the skills needed to successfully navigate the IELTS Reading Exam. Additionally, understanding the specific requirements of each question type and managing time effectively during the test are crucial for achieving a high score.
17 IELTS Reading tips to improve your score
- Quickly read the passage to grasp its main idea by focusing on headings, subheadings, and the first and last sentences of paragraphs.
When you’re skimming a passage, you want to quickly get a sense of the main idea and structure. Here’s how you can do it:
Headings and Subheadings:
- Look at the titles and subtitles. They often provide key information about the main topics or sections in the passage.
First and Last Sentences of Paragraphs:
- Read the first and last sentences of each paragraph. These sentences often contain the main idea or topic sentence, and the concluding sentences may summarize the paragraph.
By focusing on these elements, you can rapidly understand the overall theme of the passage without delving into every detail. Skimming is particularly useful to get an initial sense of what the text is about before you dive into more detailed reading or attempt to answer specific questions.
- Scan the passage for specific keywords or phrases related to the questions instead of reading every word.
Focus on the Ideas, Not the Words:
- Understand the main concepts in the passage rather than getting stuck on individual words.
Test Different Exam Strategies, Then Choose a Winner:
- Experiment with various strategies during practice tests to find the most effective one for you.
Try Our Reading Exam Strategy:
- Follow proven strategies, like reading questions before the passage or skimming questions first, to enhance your approach.
Find Proof in the Text, Underline and Number:
- Underline relevant information in the passage and assign numbers to match with the question numbers.
Don’t Panic Over Unknown Words. Use Context:
- Understand the meaning of unfamiliar words based on the context in which they are used.
Don’t Leave Any Questions Unanswered:
- Even if uncertain, make an educated guess, as there is no penalty for incorrect answers.
Improve Your Reading Speed:
- Practice reading quickly while maintaining comprehension, gradually increasing your speed.
Try Our Favorite Reading Tools:
- Explore helpful tools and resources that aid reading comprehension, such as apps, websites, or vocabulary-building tools.
Choose Your Material Carefully:
- Practice with a variety of reading materials to expose yourself to different topics and writing styles.
Don’t Sacrifice Retention for Speed:
- Balance speed and comprehension; it’s essential to understand the information while maintaining a reasonable reading pace.
Organize Your Reading Time to Improve Your Focus:
- Allocate specific time slots for practice reading, minimizing distractions to enhance concentration.
Improving Reading Comprehension:
- Focus on understanding the main ideas, supporting details, and the overall structure of the passage.
- Engage actively with the text by asking questions, making predictions, and summarizing key points.
Resources for Practice:
- Utilize a variety of practice materials, including IELTS practice tests, sample passages, and additional reading resources.
Understand that the Answer is Always Paraphrased in the Text Provided:
- Recognize that the answer to a question may be paraphrased in the passage rather than stated exactly.
Incorporate these steps into your IELTS Reading preparation to build effective strategies and enhance your performance on the exam. Regular practice and targeted efforts in these areas will contribute to overall success.
Part 1: Questions 1-5
Circle the appropriate letter.
1. A B C D
2. A B C D
3 What did she have inside her briefcase?
A wallet, pens and novel
B papers and wallet
C pens and novel
D papers, pen and novel
5 What time was it when she lost her briefcase?
Complete the form Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
PERSONAL DETAILS FORM
Name: Mary (6)
Address: Flat 2, (7) and (8) Road Canterbury
Estimated value of lost item: (10) £
Part 2: Questions 11-13
Circle the THREE other items which are mentioned in the news headlines.
A Rivers flood in the north
B Money promised for drought victims – Example
C Nurses on strike in Melbourne
D Passengers rescued from ship
E Passengers rescued from plane
F Bus and train drivers national strike threat
G Teachers demand more pay
H New uniform for QANTAS staff
I National airports under new management
Complete the notes below by writing NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS in the spaces provided.
The Government plans to give (14) $ to assist the farmers. This money was to be spent on improving Sydney’s (15) but has now been re-allocated. Australia has experienced its worst drought in over fifty years. Farmers say that the money will not help them because it is (16)
An aeroplane which was carrying a group of (17) was forced to land just (18) minutes after take-off. The passengers were rescued by
(19) The operation was helped because of the good weather. The passengers thanked the (20) for saving their lives but unfortunately they lost their (21)
Part 3: Questions 22-25
Circle the appropriate letter.
22 The orientation meeting
A took place recently
B took place last term
C will take place tomorrow
D will take place next week
23 Attendance at lectures is
A optional after 4 pm
B closely monitored
C difficult to enforce
D sometimes unnecessary
24 Tutorials take place
A every morning
B twice a week
C three mornings a week
D three afternoons a week
25 The lecturer’s name is
Complete the notes below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
* A piece of work ON A given topic. Students must:
* (26) for 25 minutes
* give to lecturer for marking
Essay Topic: usually (28)
Type of exam: (29)
Library: important books are in (30)
Focus of course: focus on (31)
Part 4: Questions 32 and 33
Circle the appropriate letter.
32 The speaker works within the Faculty of
A Science and Technology
B Arts and Social Sciences
33 The faculty consists firstly of
Complete the notes with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
• The subjects taken in the first semester in this course are psychology, sociology,
* Students may have problems with (35) and
Circle the appropriate letter.
37 The speaker says students can visit her
A every morning
B some mornings
C mornings only
D Friday morning
38 According to the speaker, a tutorial
A is a type of lecture
B is less important than a lecture
C provides a chance to share views
D provides an alternative to groupwork
39 When writing essays, the speaker advises the students to
A research their work well
B name the books they have read
C share work with their friends
D avoid using other writers’ ideas
40 The speaker thinks that plagiarism is
A a common problem
B an acceptable risk
C a minor concern
D a serious offence
10. pound 65
14. $ 250 million
15. road system
16. too late
17. school children
27. write up work
28. can choose
29. open book
30. closed reserve
34. history and economics
IELTS Reading Test 7
A Chronicle of Timekeeping
A According to archaeological evidence, at least 5,000 years ago, and long before the advent of the Roman Empire, the Babylonians began to measure time, introducing calendars to co-ordinate communal activities, to plan the shipment of goods and, in particular, to regulate planting and harvesting. They based their calendars on three natural cycles: the solar day, marked by the successive periods of light and darkness as the earth rotates on its axis; the lunar month, following the phases of the moon as it orbits the earth; and the solar year, defined by the changing seasons that accompany our planet’s revolution around the sun.
B Before the invention of artificial light, the moon had greater social impact. And, for those living near the equator in particular, its waxing and waning was more conspicuous than the passing of the seasons. Hence, the calendars that were developed at the lower latitudes were influenced more by the lunar cycle than by the solar year. In more northern climes, however, where seasonal agriculture was practised, the solar year became more crucial. As the Roman Empire expanded northward, it organised its activity chart for the most part around the solar year.
C Centuries before the Roman Empire, the Egyptians had formulated a municipal calendar having 12 months of 30 days, with five days added to approximate the solar year. Each period of ten days was marked by the appearance of special groups of stars called decans. At the rise of the star Sirius just before sunrise, which occurred around the all-important annual flooding of the Nile, 12 decans could be seen spanning the heavens. The cosmic significance the Egyptians placed in the 12 decans led them to develop a system in which each interval of darkness (and later, each interval of daylight) was divided into a dozen equal parts. These periods became known as temporal hours because their duration varied according to the changing length of days and nights with the passing of the seasons. Summer hours were long, winter ones short; only at the spring and autumn equinoxes were the hours of daylight and darkness equal. Temporal hours, which were first adopted by the Greeks and then the Romans, who disseminated them through Europe, remained in use for more than 2,500 years.
D In order to track temporal hours during the day, inventors created sundials, which indicate time by the length or direction of the sun’s shadow. The sundial’s counterpart, the water clock, was designed to measure temporal hours at night. One of the first water clocks was a basin with a small hole near the bottom through which the water dripped out. The falling water level denoted the passing hour as it dipped below hour lines inscribed on the inner surface. Although these devices performed satisfactorily around the Mediterranean, they could not always be depended on in the cloudy and often freezing weather of northern Europe.
E The advent of the mechanical clock meant that although it could be adjusted to maintain temporal hours, it was naturally suited to keeping equal ones. With these, however, arose the question of when to begin counting, and so, in the early 14th century, a number of systems evolved. The schemes that divided the day into 24 equal parts varied according to the start of the count: Italian hours began at sunset, Babylonian hours at sunrise, astronomical hours at midday and ‘great clock’ hours, used for some large public clocks in Germany, at midnight. Eventually these were superseded by ‘small clock’, or French, hours, which split the day into two 12-hour periods commencing at midnight.
F The earliest recorded weight-driven mechanical clock was built in 1283 in Bedfordshire in England. The revolutionary aspect of this new timekeeper was neither the descending weight that provided its motive force nor the gear wheels (which had been around for at least 1,300 years) that transferred the power; it was the part called the escapement. In the early 1400s came the invention of the coiled spring or fusee which maintained constant force to the gear wheels of the timekeeper despite the changing tension of its mainspring. By the 16th century, a pendulum clock had been devised, but the pendulum swung in a large arc and thus was not very efficient.
G To address this, a variation on the original escapement was invented in 1670, in England. It was called the anchor escapement, which was a lever-based device shaped like a ship’s anchor. The motion of a pendulum rocks this device so that it catches and then releases each tooth of the escape wheel, in turn allowing it to turn a precise amount. Unlike the original form used in early pendulum clocks, the anchor escapement permitted the pendulum to travel in a very small arc. Moreover, this invention allowed the use of a long pendulum which could beat once a second and thus led to the development of a new floor standing case design, which became known as the grandfather clock.
H Today, highly accurate timekeeping instruments set the beat for most electronic devices. Nearly all computers contain a quartz-crystal clock to regulate their operation. Moreover, not only do time signals beamed down from Global Positioning System satellites calibrate the functions of precision navigation equipment, they do so as well for mobile phones, instant stock-trading systems and nationwide power-distribution grids. So integral have these time-based technologies become to day-to-day existence that our dependency on them is recognised only when they fail to work.
Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs, A-H. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 1- 4 on your answer sheet.
1 a description of an early timekeeping invention affected by cold temperatures
2 an explanation of the importance of geography in the development of the calendar in farming communities
3 a description of the origins of the pendulum clock
4 details of the simultaneous efforts of different societies to calculate time using uniform hours
Look at the following events (Questions 5-8) and the list of nationalities below. Match each event with the correct nationality, A-F. Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
5 They devised a civil calendar in which the months were equal in length.
6 They divided the day into two equal halves.
7 They developed a new cabinet shape for a type of timekeeper.
8 They created a calendar to organise public events and work schedules.
Label the diagram below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL IN THE USA
A An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States, which were becoming quite congested. The resulting structure of air traffic control has greatly increased the safety of flight in the United States, and similar air traffic control procedures are also in place over much of the rest of the world.
B Rudimentary air traffic control (АТС) existed well before the Grand Canyon disaster. As early as the 1920s, the earliest air traffic controllers manually guided aircraft in the vicinity of the airports, using lights and flags, while beacons and flashing lights were placed along cross-country routes to establish the earliest airways. However, this purely visual system was useless in bad weather, and, by the 1930s, radio communication was coming into use for АТС. The first region to have something approximating today’s АТС was New York City, with other major metropolitan areas following soon after.
C In the 1940s, АТС centres could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio communication brought about by the Second World War, but the system remained rudimentary. It was only after the creation of the FAA that full-scale regulation of America’s airspace took place, and this was fortuitous, for the advent of the jet engine suddenly resulted in a large number of very fast planes, reducing pilots’ margin of error and practically demanding some set of rules to keep everyone well separated and operating safely in the air.
D Many people think that АТС consists of a row of controllers sitting in front of their radar screens at the nation’s airports, telling arriving and departing traffic what to do. This is a very incomplete part of the picture. The FAA realised that the airspace over the United States would at any time have many different kinds of planes, flying for many different purposes, in a variety of weather conditions, and the same kind of structure was needed to accommodate all of them.
E To meet this challenge, the following elements were put into effect. First, АТС extends over virtually the entire United States. In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground, and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface. Controlled airspace is that airspace in which FAA regulations apply. Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m, while the pilot who does want the protection afforded by АТС can easily enter the controlled airspace.
F The FAA then recognised two types of operating environments. In good meteorological conditions, flying would be permitted under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), which suggests a strong reliance on visual cues to maintain an acceptable level of safety. Poor visibility necessitated a set of Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR), under which the pilot relied on altitude and navigational information provided by the plane’s instrument panel to fly safely. On a clear day, a pilot in controlled airspace can choose a VFR or IFR flight plan, and the FAA regulations were devised in a way which accommodates both VFR and IFR operations in the same airspace. However, a pilot can only choose to fly IFR if they possess an instrument rating which is above and beyond the basic pilot’s license that must also be held.
G Controlled airspace is divided into several different types, designated by letters of the alphabet. Uncontrolled airspace is designated Class F, while controlled airspace below 5,490m above sea level and not in the vicinity of an airport is Class E. All airspace above 5,490m is designated Class A. The reason for the division of Class E and Class A airspace stems from the type of planes operating in them. Generally, Class E airspace is where one finds general aviation aircraft (few of which can climb above 5,490m anyway), and commercial turboprop aircraft. Above 5,490m is the realm of the heavy jets, since jet engines operate more efficiently at higher altitudes. The difference between Class E and A airspace is that in Class A, all operations are IFR, and pilots must be instrument-rated, that is, skilled and licensed in aircraft instrumentation. This is because АТС control of the entire space is essential. Three other types of airspace, Classes D, С and B, govern the vicinity of airports. These correspond roughly to small municipal, medium-sized metropolitan and major metropolitan airports respectively, and encompass an increasingly rigorous set of regulations. For example, all a VFR pilot has to do to enter Class С airspace is establish two-way radio contact with АТС. No explicit permission from АТС to enter is needed, although the pilot must continue to obey all regulations governing VFR flight. To enter Class В airspace, such as on approach to a major metropolitan airport, an explicit АТС clearance is required. The private pilot who cruises without permission into this airspace risks losing their license.
Reading passage 2 has seven paragraphs A-G. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A and C-G from the list below. Write the correct number i-x in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Disobeying FAA Regulations
ii Aviation disaster prompts action
iii Two coincidental developments
iv Setting Altitude Zones
v An oversimplified view
vi Controlling pilots’ licence
vii Defining airspace categories
viii Setting rules to weather conditions
ix Taking of Safety
x First step towards ATC
Example – Paragraph B x
14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph C
16 Paragraph D
17 Paragraph E
18 Paragraph F
19 Paragraph G
Do the following statements agree with the given information of the reading passage? In boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet, write:
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
20 The FAA was created as a result of the introduction of the jet engine.
21 Air traffic control started after the Grand Canyon crash in 1956.
22 Beacons and flashing lights are still used by the ATC today.
23 Some improvements were made in radio communication during World War II.
24 Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airports.
25 All aircraft in class E airspace must use IFR.
26 A pilot entering class C airspace is flying over an average-sized city.
Since the 1970s, parapsychologists at leading universities and research institutes around the world have risked the derision of sceptical colleagues by putting the various claims for telepathy to the test in dozens of rigorous scientific studies. The results and their implications are dividing even the researchers who uncovered them.
Some researchers say the results constitute compelling evidence that telepathy is genuine. Other parapsychologists believe the field is on the brink of collapse, having tried to produce definitive scientific proof and failed. Sceptics and advocates alike do concur on one issue, however: that the most impressive evidence so far has come from the so-called ‘ganzfeld’ experiments, a German term that means ‘whole field’. Reports of telepathic experiences had by people during meditation led parapsychologists to suspect that telepathy might involve ‘signals’ passing between people that were so faint that they were usually swamped by normal brain activity. In this case, such signals might be more easily detected by those experiencing meditation-like tranquility in a relaxing ‘whole field’ of light, sound and warmth.
The ganzfeld experiment tries to recreate these conditions with participants sitting in soft reclining chairs in a sealed room, listening to relaxing sounds while their eyes are covered with special filters letting in only soft pink light. In early ganzfeld experiments, the telepathy test involved identification of a picture chosen from a random selection of four taken from a large image bank. The idea was that a person acting as a ‘sender’ would attempt to beam the image over to the ‘receiver’ relaxing in the sealed room. Once the session was over, this person was asked to identify which of the four images had been used. Random guessing would give a hit-rate of 25 per cent; if telepathy is real, however, the hit-rate would be higher. In 1982, the results from the first ganzfeld studies were analysed by one of its pioneers, the American parapsychologist Charles Honorton. They pointed to typical hit-rates of better than 30 per cent – a small effect, but one which statistical tests suggested could not be put down to chance.
The implication was that the ganzfeld method had revealed real evidence for telepathy. But there was a crucial flaw in this argument – one routinely overlooked in more conventional areas of science. Just because chance had been ruled out as an explanation did not prove telepathy must exist; there were many other ways of getting positive results. These ranged from ‘sensory leakage’ – where clues about the pictures accidentally reach the receiver – to outright fraud. In response, the researchers issued a review of all the ganzfeld studies done up to 1985 to show that 80 per cent had found statistically significant evidence. However, they also agreed that there were still too many problems in the experiments which could lead to positive results, and they drew up a list demanding new standards for future research.
After this, many researchers switched to autoganzfeld tests – an automated variant of the technique which used computers to perform many of the key tasks such as the random selection of images. By minimising human involvement, the idea was to minimise the risk of flawed results. In 1987, results from hundreds of autoganzfeld tests were studied by Honorton in a ‘meta-analysis’, a statistical technique for finding the overall results from a set of studies. Though less compelling than before, the outcome was still impressive.
Yet some parapsychologists remain disturbed by the lack of consistency between individual ganzfeld studies. Defenders of telepathy point out that demanding impressive evidence from every study ignores one basic statistical fact: it takes large samples to detect small effects. If, as current results suggest, telepathy produces hit-rates only marginally above the 25 per cent expected by chance, it’s unlikely to be detected by a typical ganzfeld study involving around 40 people: the group is just not big enough. Only when many studies are combined in a meta-analysis will the faint signal of telepathy really become apparent. And that is what researchers do seem to be finding.
What they are certainly not finding, however, is any change in attitude of mainstream scientists: most still totally reject the very idea of telepathy. The problem stems at least in part from the lack of any plausible mechanism for telepathy.
Various theories have been put forward, many focusing on esoteric ideas from theoretical physics. They include ‘quantum entanglement’, in which events affecting one group of atoms instantly affect another group, no matter how far apart they may be. While physicists have demonstrated entanglement with specially prepared atoms, no-one knows if it also exists between atoms making up human minds. Answering such questions would transform parapsychology. This has prompted some researchers to argue that the future lies not in collecting more evidence for telepathy, but in probing possible mechanisms. Some work has begun already, with researchers trying to identify people who are particularly successful in autoganzfeld trials. Early results show that creative and artistic people do much better than average: in one study at the University of Edinburgh, musicians achieved a hit-rate of 56 per cent. Perhaps more tests like these will eventually give the researchers the evidence they are seeking and strengthen the case for the existence of telepathy.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A —G, below. Write the correct letter, A—G, in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27 Researchers with differing attitudes towards telepathy agree on
28 Reports of experiences during meditation indicated
29 Attitudes to parapsychology would alter drastically with
30 Recent autoganzfeld trials suggest that success rates will improve with
A the discovery of a mechanism for telepathy.
B the need to create a suitable environment for telepathy.
C their claims of a high success rate.
D a solution to the problem posed by random guessing.
E the significance of the ganzfeld experiments.
F a more careful selection of subjects.
G a need to keep altering conditions.
Complete the table below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 31-40 on your answer sheet.
|Ganzfeld studies 1982
|involved a person acting as a (31)……………….who picked out one (32)……………. from a random selection of four and a (33)………………. who then tried to identify it
|hit rates were higher than with random guessing
|positive results could be produced by factors such as (34)…………. or (35)…………..
|Autoganzfeld studies 1987
|(36)…………….were used for key tasks to limit the amount of (37)…………. in carrying out the tests
|the results were then subjected to a (38)………….
|the (39)………….. between different test results were put down to the fact that sample groups were not (40)…………. (as with most ganzfled studies)
9. (ships’s) anchor
10. (escape) wheel
12. (long) pendulum
22. not given
32. picture/ image
34. sensory leakage
37. human involvement
39. lack of consistency
40. big/ large enough
(FOR PDF VERSION OF TESTS PLEASE CONTACT – PRACTICEPTEONLINE@GMAIL.COM)
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