Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive


Digital Peak Limited (DPL) is a large importer of Chinese brands of mobiles, tablets, laptops and

related accessories. Sachal, the newly appointed Business Development Manager has come up with

an idea that free auditing books pdf DPL should launch an online store to boost its sales. Further, DPL should promote its

online store in the urban as well as rural areas specially where universities and reputed institutions are

situated. However, EXAM PREPARATION & TUTORING the management has reservations regarding various aspects of the online business.


On behalf of Sachal, prepare a note to convince the management describing:

(a) How an online store is more customer friendly than a traditional store. (04 marks)

(b) The measures which DPL could take to facilitate the customers and alleviate their security

concerns. (08 marks)


Q.9 Flash Marketing Limited (FML) is a medium sized fast moving consumer goods distributor. Few

months ago, free acca study materials FML got its website revamped by Web Experts Limited (WEL). The new website has

interactive features with separate areas designated for different stakeholders. On expiry of the free

service period, free auditing books pdf WEL has proposed FML to enter into a 3 years contract for website administration

and maintenance. Under the proposed agreement, WEL would also be responsible to update website

as instructed by FML. free accounting books However, all changes in design would be billed separately.


(a) Identify the risks that FML may face if it decides to accept WEL’s offer. (04 marks)

(b) Identify the measures through which FML could mitigate the risks identified in part (a) above.

(06 marks)


Q.4 E–commerce has gained a significant share acca study materails of the overall market for goods and services in many

countries. However, in addition to its advantages free download for pdf , e–commerce has several limitations including

risks for commercial organizations as well as individual consumers.


Briefly explain the risks associated with the use of e–commerce, from the customers as well as the

sellers’ point of view and suggest measures that can be adopted to mitigate them. (12 marks)


Q.8 Sunny Bank Limited (SBL) has recently entered into an arrangement with Glitter Inc. (GI), which

provides facilities for world-wide transfer of funds. GI has installed a dedicated system application

covering all branches of SBL, for electronic transfer of funds and interchange of data. The installed

application will run over a Value Added Network.


As the SBL’s Internal IS Auditor, identify and briefly explain any twelve controls which you would

look for, in the GI’s application. (12 marks)


Q.2 Clay & Stones Limited makes stone jewelry, clay pots and decoration pieces depicting the

Indus Valley civilization. It has sales outlets in two major cities of the country. Due to

increasing interest of tourists in its products, the management has started a project to

launch an e-commerce enabled website. exam preparation & tutoring The management has appointed you as their

consultant for this project.


(a) Develop a questionnaire to be filled by the management, in order to enable you to

carry out the following:

(i) Ascertain the viability of the project.

(ii) Determine the resources required to host the website.

(iii) Plan the customer services and support requirements. (09)

(b) Suggest suitable measures to ensure that the website remains (i) secure, (ii) updated

and (iii) available. (06)


Q.5 Universal Medical Store (UMS) has a countrywide chain of stores. The management is

planning to upgrade their website and launch a medical services portal where pre

registration would be allowed to their customers and they would be able to ask questions

from renowned medical specialists. free auditing books pdf The customers data recorded at the time of registration

would remain in the UMS database unless the customer decides to relinquish the

registration. However, their questions and the doctor’s replies would be removed from

UMS server after twelve months.


(a) List the key steps which UMS should perform to ensure that it is complying with all



Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive



Here’s What to Do
References such as D1 and B4 are called Relative References. As you copy a formula containing relative references, the cell being referenced in the formula changes.
Sometimes, you want a cell reference to always point to a certain cell. In this case, you always want to use the growth rate in cell D1. To do this, change the reference style to an absolute reference by placing a dollar sign before the column letter and row number.

In this case, you need to change the formula in C4 to =B4*$D$1. Now, as you copy the formula, the reference to B4 is allowed to change but every cell continues to point to the growth rate in D1. You can enter new growth rates in D1 to play what-if games.

Note that there are times where you want to freeze the row number but allow the column letter to move. In this case, a reference such as =C$1 will achieve that result. This is called a Mixed Reference. Other times, you will want a formula to always refer to a value in column A, but it is OK to have the row number change. In this case, a reference such as =$A4 will work. This is also a mixed reference.

Excel Details
To simplify the entry of dollar signs in references, you can use the F4 key. When you are typing a formula, hit the F4 key immediately after typing a cell reference. The first time that you hit F4, the reference changes from =D1 to =$D$1. Hit F4 again to toggle to =D$1. Hit F4 again to toggle to =$D1. Hit F4 once more to toggle back to a relative reference of =D1.

Highlighting Outliers
Here’s the Situation You have a large dataset. You want to find the transactions which are out of the ordinary. Perhaps you want to find the largest or smallest transactions, or transactions above average. Here’s What to Do Use the new Conditional Formatting options in Excel 2007. The opportunities for highlighting outliers with conditional formatting have dramatically improved in Excel 2007. The combination of easy conditional formatting with the Sort by Color option is fantastic. Most of the chapters in this book focus on illustrating how to do something in Excel 97-2003 and on how this is different in Excel 2007. However, the first 90% of this chapter focuses on the improved features in Excel 2007. The final example covers conditional formatting in Excel 2003.


Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive


Energy Auditing Basics nergy audits can mean different things to different individuals.

The scope of an energy audit, exam preparation & tutoring the complexity of calculations, and the level of economic evaluation are all issues that may be handled differently by each individual auditor and should be defined prior to beginning any audit activities. This chapter will review the various approaches to energy

auditing and outline a standard approach to organizing and conducting an energy audit.

An energy audit can be simply defined as a process to evaluate where a building or plant uses energy, and identify opportunities to reduce consumption

There is a direct relationship to the cost of the audit, how much

data will be collected and analyzed, free acca study materials and the number of conservation

opportunities identified. Thus, a first distinction is made between cost of

the audit which determines the type of audit to be performed. The second

distinction is made between the type of facility.

For example, a building audit may emphasize the building envelope, lighting, heating,

and ventilation requirements. On the other hand, an audit of an indus-

trial plant emphasizes the process requirements.

TYPES OF ENERGY AUDITS free auditing books pdf

Before starting the energy audit, it is helpful to have some idea of the scope of the project and level of effort necessary to meet expectations.

There are three basic types or levels of energy audit, any of which may meet your requirements. free acca books download pdf The basic audit levels, in order of increasing complexity are:

Level 1—The Walk-Through Audit

The walk-through audit, as its name implies, is a tour of the facility

to visually inspect each of the energy using systems. It will typically include

an evaluation of energy

consumption data to analyze energy

use quantities and patterns as well as provide comparisons to industry averages

or benchmarks for similar facilities. It is the least costly audit but can yield a preliminary

estimate of savings potential and provide a list of lowcost savings opportunities through improvements

in operational and maintenance practices. The level one audit is also an opportunity to collect information

for a more detailed audit later if the preliminary savings potential

appears to warrant an expanded scope of auditing activity.

Level 2—Standard Audit

The standard audit goes on to quantify energy uses and losses

through a more detailed review and analysis of equipment, systems, and

operational characteristics. free accounting books This analysis may also include some on-site

measurement and testing to quantify energy use and efficiency of various

systems. Standard energy engineering calculations are used to analyze efficiencies and calculate energy

and costs savings based on improvements and changes to each system. free auditing books pdf The standard audit will also include

an economic analysis of recommended conservation measures.

Level 3—Computer Simulation

The level three audit will include more detail of energy use by func-

tion and a more comprehensive evaluation of energy use patterns. This is

accomplished through use of computer simulation software. acca study materails  The auditor

will develop a computer simulation of building systems that will account

for weather and other variables and predict year-round energy use. The

auditor’s goal is to build a base for comparison that is consistent with the

actual energy consumption of the facility. After this baseline is built, the

auditor will then make changes to improve efficiency of various systems

and measure the effects compared to the baseline. This method also accounts

for interactions between systems to help prevent overestimation of savings.

Because of the time involved in collecting detailed equipment information,

operational data, free download for pdf and setting up an accurate computer model,

this is the most expensive level of energy audit but may be warranted if the facility or systems are more complex in nature.


In order to help identify qualified professionals who perform energy

audits, the Association

of Energy

engineers (AEE) created

the Certified


Manager (CEM) program.


Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive


Q.7 The Human Resources Department of Sensible Investment Fund (SIF) is in the process of compilation of staff manual. While formulating policies for recruitment and termination of IT staff, the HR Manager requested the IT Manager to give his input on the same.


You are required to:

(a) Identify common controls which should be considered while hiring IT personnel. (02)

(b) List the control procedures that should be followed when an IT staff leaves SIF. (03)

S08 Q.4

Q.4 The CEO of Jalib Securities & Exchange Company is concerned about the rising number of

frauds being reported in the industry specially those carried out by insiders. acca study materails Recently

another financial institution in the same region had suffered a loss of Rs. 10 million due to

a fraud which was committed by a senior executive who was responsible for carrying out a

number of key responsibilities related to information systems. The CEO has requested you

to advise the company on prevention and detection measures against such threats to their

information systems.


(a) Discuss the principle of segregation of duties? free accounting books What could occur if adequate

segregation of duties does not exist? (03)

(b) Suggest other best practices for preventing and detecting frauds that may be

committed by key information systems personnel. (List at least six points) (06)

W07 Q.9

Q.9 With the increasing role of information technology in business, training has become an

essential factor of success. All levels of management are required to have relevant

training at appropriate time.


For any organization where information technology is extensively used in all aspects of

business, exam preparation & tutoring you are required to:

(a) List four specific situations in which training is essential. (02)

(b) Identify at least two levels of management and list the areas in which they may be

trained. (04)

W07 Q.10

Q.10 Ultimate Fund Transfer Services (UFTS) is a new, rapidly expanding medium size

organization that offers electronic funds transfer facilities to financial institutions. The

Board of Directors of UFTS comprises of one representative from each of the four

organizations that are major shareholders in UFTS,acca study materails plus the Chief Executive Officer

(CEO) who has strong information technology background.

You have been appointed to perform the first information systems audit of UFTS. During

your review of the controls, you note that there is no IT Steering Committee. The CEO is

of the opinion that an IT Steering Committee is not needed as the Board of Directors is

performing most of its functions free download for pdf.


(a) Exam preparation & tutoring Briefly explain the role and responsibilities of IT Steering Committee. (02)

(b) Explain the risk or threats involved in case the Board of UFTS performs the

functions of IT Steering Committee. (03)

(c) What impact, if any, does the absence of a steering committee have on the way you

will approach the IS audit? (02)

(d) If the company decides to form an IT Steering Committee, give your views on the

composition of such a Committee in the above circumstances. (04)

S07 Q.1

Q.1 Secure Bank has recently consolidated its global IT operations by using a centralized,

client-server based application. free auditing books pdf Demands of specialized operating skills to run the new

setup are quite unique and cannot be met in-house. Management has therefore decided in

principle, to outsource the centralized IT operations of the Bank to a third party service

provider. Since the proposal is considered significant and risky, it needs to be approved

by the Board of Directors. The Board has reviewed the proposal and has called a special

meeting with the senior IT free auditing books pdf management of the Bank to evaluate the proposed outsourcing



As part of the Board evaluation of proposed outsourcing arrangement; list at least twelve

distinct questions which the Board should ask from the senior IT management, to satisfy


Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive



In spite of the analysis of the quality of strategic spreadsheets in use in our partner company, we were
interested in evaluating the approach we developed for analysing spreadsheet quality.

As spreadsheet
users are application experts,FREE ACCOUNTING BOOKS we do not want to put too heavy a burden on them by requiring to switch
from their “culture” as application experts to the “culture” of professional software developers.
Nevertheless, they act as professional software developers when writing and maintaining long-living

To assess our auditing technique's effectiveness, one has to recognise that there are two dimensions of
freedom to be considered: The number of actual errors in the sheets available and the degree to which
such errors are identified, and the effort needed to find those errors.

Obviously, testing and other conventional forms of software quality assurance can never demonstrate
that the artefact analysed is faultless. Testing can only show that it finds faults. In our case, the auditor
first analysed the sheets on the value dimension and found extremely few errors. This can be taken as
indicator of the general high quality of the sheets exam preparation & tutoring. The ones he caught, though, can be taken as
evidence for his careful checking and sufficiently mastering the application area. Looking on the
model dimension, however, he found an overall error rate of 3,03 %. This not only meets our
expectations, it is also consistent with results from other studies [Panko, 2000], [Panko, 1997b].

The second aspect is efficiency. The auditor who was no domain expert, stayed for 4 months at the
company and actually spent 10 weeks on the audit. Hence, the examination of totally 60.446 cells was
done in ten weeks by somebody who is not a domain expert. Of course, the errors identified were
discussed with the sheets’ authors, and documentation work had to be done. This gives an average
inspection rate of 1208 cells per day.

Compared to other approaches (see [Panko, 1997]) this is rather high. Hence, we claim that the
approach is worthwhile to follow at least for those portions of sheets, where high regularity is to be
assumed and that complexity of size is well addressed. The structural complexity, however, is still an
issue warranting further investigations.


The main task of the audit was twofold. On the face value, our industry partner wanted to have the
companies spreadsheet audited (To be honest: Before we started, they were convinced that we would
not find anything! exam preparation & tutoring). We, on the other hand wanted to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the
approach to audit spreadsheets on the basis of visualization by logical equivalence classes.

Concerning the first aspect, we might say that the quality of the company’s spreadsheet was
surprisingly good at first sight. acca study materails The audit did not reveal spectacular wrong results. This might be due
to the fact, that the spreadsheets are properly tested. However, they test only in the value domain and
the correction on the value level made the spreadsheet model inconsistent. This bears the danger of
spectacular errors to come up in future evolution steps. However, the audit still discovered 241
quantitative errors in the spreadsheets.

The company's representatives were very concerned of the audit's result. They stated that better
spreadsheet development practices are going to be introduced. The representatives were also interested
in guidelines to decide, free download for pdf whether a specific application should be realized by a spreadsheet or by a
database application. One of the suggested improvements was better documentation and the
application of systematic testing and auditing approaches.

The efficiency and performance of testing can be increased by use of a standardized auditing or testing
methodology, as described in [Rothermel, 2000] or in [Ayalew, 2002]. The efficiency can be further
increased by model visualization (see [Mittermeir, 2002]).

Insufficient documentation turned out to be the main cause of errors. Thus, we are currently working
on guidelines for the documentation of spreadsheets. The lack of understanding due to missing
documentation can even make some spreadsheets useless, if the maintainer leaves the company. Better
understanding free acca study materails can be gained either by decreasing the overall complexity of the spreadsheet with
design restrictions (see [Knight, 2000], [Isakowitz, 1995], [Wilde, 1993]), by giving a more
comprehensive description of the spreadsheet (see [Paine, 1997], [Stadelmann, 1993]) or by
visualizing the logical structure (see [Sajaniemi, 2000], [Chan, 2000], [Mittermeir, 2002]).


Currently we are improving our auditing tool by a seamless integration of the dependency viewer. We
aim to place it into one free accounting books of the next releases of the open-source spreadsheet system Gnumeric. Our
plans to integrate the toolkit with Excel are currently stalled, as we do not have access to the excel-
formula-parser, while comparing parse-trees is a main issue of our toolkit.

We aim to support the auditing of large spreadsheets by adding further abstraction mechanisms to our
approach. Among other things, we suggest to find groups of similar cells with similar neighbours and
group them into semantic classes. Again, these semantic classes can be used for spotting irregularities
in the spreadsheet.


This paper presents an auditing toolkit for assessing the correctness of large spreadsheets. The tool
helps to identify irregularities in the spatial distribution of similar formulas. An assessment in an
industrial context proved to be quite encouraging. It helped to analyse 78 spreadsheets, amongst them
62% contained errors. The cell error rate was 3.03 %. For the auditing itself, 4 person-months have
been spent.

It turned out that the toolkit is suitable for auditing spreadsheets with large uniform or regular blocks
by reducing the complexity of size. The auditors attention is focused to those cells were the regularity
of formula occurrences is interrupted.

The main error sources we identified were the lack of documentation, maintenance and error
corrections that were not consistent with the spreadsheet’s internal logic. Thus, further ways for
supporting spreadsheet comprehension are called for.


Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive



Auditing involves investigating information prepared by someone else to decide whether the information is fairly stated. All people audit to  some extent in their personal lives.A simple form of personal auditing is checking your bank statement to make sure all the transactions it shows are correct. This book is about financial statement audits, free acca books download which have a similar goal: checking to see whether reports prepared by managers of companies fairly present the company’s financial position.

The auditing process requires logic-based skills. You gather evidence and
evaluate whether the evidence free acca books pdf makes sense and backs up the assertions your
client’s management makes on the financial statements. Based on your evaluation,
you issue a report that includes your opinion about the correctness of
the free acca books download pdf financial statements.
After years spent in the classroom as both a professor and student, I realize
that many accounting and auditing textbooks are, well, boring. My purpose in
writing this book is to breathe some life into the subject of auditing and make
it more understandable.

About This Book
This book, like all For Dummies books, is written so that each chapter
stands on its own. free acca study materails I always assume that whatever chapter you’re reading
is the first one you’ve tackled in the book. Therefore, you can understand
the concepts I explain in each chapter regardless of whether it’s your first
chapter or your last.
However, certain terms and concepts pertain to more than one subject in
this book. To avoid free accounting books writing the same explanations over and over, whenever I
reference a term or auditing fact that I fully explain in another chapter, I give
you a brief overview and direct you to the spot where you can get more infor-
mation. For example, acca study materails I may suggest that you “see Chapter 14” (which, by the
way, discusses auditing long-term liabilities and stockholder equity).

Also, in this book I break auditing down to its lowest common denominator. I
avoid using jargon that only seasoned auditors would understand. And where
appropriate, free download for pdf I provide a brief overview of the financial accounting concepts
that go hand in hand with the auditing topic du jour so you won’t have to
break out your accounting textbooks at every turn.
However, please keep in mind that the list of auditing steps I present in this
book isn’t all-inclusive. I simply can’t cover every possible procedure that
every audit may require. This book is meant to illuminate the rather dry
presentation of topics given in all auditing books from which I’ve taught. If
you’re already employed by a CPA firm and your firm requires additional
procedures, your audit supervisor will let you know.
Furthermore, I briefly discuss the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) and the
watchdog over the audits of publicly traded companies, the Public Company
Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB). If you have the time, I recommend
reading Sarbanes-Oxley For Dummies by Jill Gilbert Welytok, JD, CPA (published
by Wiley).
This exam preparation & tutoring handbook walks you through the new and revised SOX
laws, albeit looking at the topic more from the client’s point of view than
from yours as an auditor. Conventions Used in This Book
Following are some conventions I use that you’ll want to bear in mind while
reading this book:
✓ I introduce new terms in italic with an explanation immediately following.
For example, due care means that you plan and supervise adequately
any professional activity for which you’re responsible.
✓ Many auditing and accounting terms have acronyms (which you’ll soon
be bandying about with your peers after you gain some familiarity or
experience with the topic).

The first time I introduce an acronym in a
chapter, I spell it out and place the acronym in parentheses. For example,
I may discuss the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants



Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive


Examining the changing nature of business

The circumstances under which businesses operate have changed dramatically in the last couple decades. The combination of the introduction of

e-commerce in the late 1990s and technological advances that ushered in

business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) commerce

allowed businesses to connect electronically with one another and with them customers.

As a result, many businesses started to outsource tasks such as human

resources and inventory management, allowing companies to conduct business

in real-time in any part of the world via the Internet and largely eliminating

the need to fax and ship paper documents.

 What do all these changes mean to an auditor? Whereas in the past, businesses

produced paper trails that auditors, EXAM PREPARATION & TUTORING investors, and other interested

parties could follow to find clues when examining the financial statements,

those trails are increasingly electronic. FREE DOWNLOAD FOR PDF Electronic data can be manipulated

when controls are lacking and more difficult to track down than a piece of

paper in a file cabinet, and the increased use of technology can lead investors

and lenders who aren’t comfortable with these advances to feel less certain about

whether a business is being forthright and transparent in its dealings.


you, the auditor, whose opinion about the company’s financial statements

is more important to those outside entities.

Because more and more audit clients are relying on technological means to

store, ACCA STUDY MATERAILS retrieve, and transmit company data and documents, you must stay

current with advances in the latest accounting and business software packages,

electronic connectivity, and the way companies handle their accounting

information. FREE DOWNLOAD FOR PDF The use of paper documents may very soon be a thing of

the past. To stay competitive and provide a quality audit, you must have knowledge of the latest computer systems and auditing programs. You must

also be able to audit through the computer, which means evaluating internal

controls (see Chapter 7) and tracking accounting records in an electronic

data processing system.

Expanding along with the world economy

Thanks to technological advances, more small businesses are doing business

globally. Thus, auditors with a knowledge of international accounting and

EXAM PREPARATION & TUTORING of standards on ethics and auditing used by other countries are in great demand.

Since the early 1990s, FREE ACCA STUDY MATERIALS there has been serious talk about harmonizing

U.S. accounting and auditing standards with other countries’ standards.

That change is inevitable, and all auditors should have at least a basic understanding

of the subject. For information about international standards, visit

the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) Web site at

When the world economy is weak, chances increase that unethical clients will

try to show higher profits than they earned in order to keep them

shareholders happy. As an auditor, you must always be aware of that trend.FREE ACCOUNTING BOOKS



Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive


This type of approved share option scheme differs from the SAYE schemes described above in that: 
– the aggregate value of options granted is potentially much higher
– the company has much greater discretion in allocating options to employees.  

How the scheme operates - FREE ACCA BOOKS DOWNLOAD PDF 
The company grants the employee the right to buy shares at some time in the future, at a price fixed at the time of the grant of the option.
Some time later the employee will pay the required amount and the 
shares are issued to them.
As an approved scheme: 
– There is no income tax or NIC FREE ACCOUNTING BOOKS charge on the grant of the option.
– On the exercise of an option there is no charge to tax.
– On the final disposal of scheme shares, CGT will be charged on 
any gain arising.

Conditions for the CSOP scheme 
Eligible employees must be either full ­time directors Acca Lsbf Video Lectures Free Download(i.e. working at least 25 hours per week) or full­ time or part­ time employees.
Close company directors with a material interest (> 30%) are 
ineligible. Subject to the above, the company has complete 
discretion as to participants.

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive


Preface - free auditing books pdf

This book is a guide on implementing security and auditing for database environments. It is meant to be used by database administrators, security administrators, free acca books download pdf system administrators, auditors, and operational owners—anyone who manages or oversees the database environment, data/ database security, or the process by which database security and database audits are accomplished.

The book shows you how to secure and audit database environments which include the major relational products: environments, which include the major relational database products: Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, Sybase, and even a bit of MySQL. It is useful if you have a single database product and is even more useful if you need to secure and/or audit heterogeneous environments that include more than one database version. The methods free acca study materials you will learn apply to all modern relational database environments.

This book is meant to show you methods and techniques that will help you elevate the security of your database infrastructure. Each chapter in the book focuses on a certain area of database administration and usage and shows you free accounting books free auditing books pdf what you need to do in that domain, as well as how to do it.

Because educated administrators are sure to be more effective than those that follow checklists with a limited understanding of what each item does and why, each chapter details anatomies of vulnerabilities in addition to the

remedies. By understanding how attackers may try to compromise the database, you will be better able to invest your limited resources where they count most. You may even be able to address issues that are not mentioned in this book and that may not even be known at this point in time.

I mentioned that the aim of this book is to make your database environment more secure and that the focus is often both administration and usage.

Many database vulnerabilities and security issues are caused by misconfigurations and inappropriate usage of the database by application servers and other clients (or even other databases in replicated and other distributed environments). free auditing books pdf In addressing this topic, many of the chapters take a broader look of database security and show you how to resolve problems by improving the way the database interacts with applications and with other elements in the infrastructure. Without understanding these techniques, you may invest a lot of time in securing “your island,” only to learn that you have a gaping hole—one that you could have easily addressed if you weren’t too busy investing in perfecting your corner of the world. The book is therefore not only meant to be a practical guide, but it also means to be an effective  guide and address real-world problems.

This book is not a checklist. Detailed instructions are included in almost all chapters, but the book is not a reference text for each of the database products. I will include pointers to relevant checklists and reference texts and instead focus on ensuring that you invest your time wisely. Security is a never-ending battle against would-be attackers, and if you don’t pick your fights wisely, you can lose to attrition. acca study materails Auditing is another area that can easily Finally, I’d like to thank the many people who have helped me understand, prioritize, free auditing books pdf implement, and navigate the complex topic of database security and audit, including George Baklarz, Moshe Barr, Roy Barr, Rodrigo Bisbal, Heather Brightman, Nir Carmel, Mike Castricone, Stephen Chaung, Curt Cotner, Peggy Fieland, Gilad Finkelstein, Bobbi

Fox, Guss Frasier, Guy Galil, Jerrilyn Glanville, Richard Gornitsky, Yaffi

Gruzman, Evan Hochstein, Memy Ish-Shalom, Nate Kalowski, Dario

Kramer, Kai Lee, Mike Lee-Lun, Michael MacDonald, Art Manwelyan,

Jack Martin, Charles McClain, Ram Metser, Ola Meyer, free download for pdf  Bruce Moulton,

Gary Narayanan, Alex Narinski, Fred Palmer, Themis Papageorge, Jason

Patti, Jennifer Peng, Daniel Perlov, exam preparation & tutoring Bob Picciano, Harold Piskiel, Jonathan

Prial, James Ransome, Leonid Rodniansky, Elliott Rosenblatt, Mojgan

Sanayei, Ury Segal, Pat Selinger, Nati Shapira, Mark Shay, Izar Tarandach,

David Valovcin, Holly Van Der Linden, and John Young. I would also like

to thank Tim Donar, Alan Rose, Theron Shreve, and Stan Wakefield for

making this book fun to write.


Please publish modules in offcanvas position.